high value-added utilization of cellulose and cellulose fiber-bamboo fiber and bamboo pulp

December 12, 2023

Pulp and paper industry value chain: high value-added utilization of cellulose and cellulose fiber

1. Cellulose and cellulose fibers
Cellulose is one of the most common organic matter in nature and is widely found in plant cell walls. Cellulose fiber is a kind of polymer material, which is an important raw material for paper making, textile, medicine, food and other industries. Cellulose is divided into natural cellulose and artificial cellulose. Natural cellulose mainly comes from wood, bamboo and other plants; artificial cellulose is converted into high value-added products which can be used in the industrial field.
 With the continuous progress of science and technology, in the background of environmental protection and sustainable development, cellulose fiber transformation and high added value utilization have important research significance and application prospect.

2. High added value subdivided cellulose fiber
1. Regenerative fibers
Refers to the use of natural polymer compounds such as cellulose and protein as raw materials, through chemical processing into the polymer concentrated solution, and then after spinning and postprocessing and made of the textile fiber. Because its chemical composition is the same as the natural cellulose and the physical structure has changed, so it is called regenerated cellulose fiber.
1) Adhesive fiber
Viscose fiber is one of the man-made fiber, with the yield being the first one. It is the second largest chemical fiber variety in China. It is mainly made of natural cotton staple wool, wood, bamboo, bagasse, straw, reed, soybean and cheese as raw materials, through chemical and mechanical processing.
(1) Viscose fiber manufacturing method: prepared by solution spinning method. First, cellulose remove the non-fibrous pulp, first with 18% sodium hydroxide solution production of alkali cellulose, then in a closed container with carbon disulfide treatment, formation of sodium sulfonate cellulose sodium, dissolved in 4% -6% sodium hydroxide solution become mucus, the mucus pressure over the head wire, from the head formed by glue into the solidification bath containing inorganic acid, electrolyte into viscose fiber.
(2) Advantages of viscose fiber: feel soft and shiny, soft as cotton fiber, silk fiber as silk fiber; hygroscopic and air permeability is better than cotton fiber, its hygroscopic complies with the physiological requirements of human skin, it can be said that it is the best moisture absorption and air permeability of all chemical fibers; good dyeing performance, smooth cool, breathable, antistatic, anti-ultraviolet, gorgeous color, good dyeing fastness and other characteristics. Therefore, viscose fiber is easier to color than cotton fiber, with pure color and the most complete chromatography. Compared with cotton fiber, its strength, extension, light resistance and chemical resistance, wet strength, wear resistance, elasticity and dimensional stability are poor. Fabric is easy to wrinkle and not easy to recover; acid and alkali resistance than cotton fiber; it has cotton nature, silk quality. Is the authentic plant fiber, derived from natural and superior to natural. Widely used in all kinds of underwear, textile, clothing, non-woven and other fields.
2) Rich and strong fiber
Commonly known as tiger kapok, strong rayon. It is a denatured viscose fiber.
(1) Manufacturing method: the cellulose pulp reacts with carbon disulfide and caustic soda to make sodium cellulose flavate. The derivative of this cellulose can be dissolved in dilute alkali, and the dissolved solution is like glue, and the viscosity is very large, so it is named "glue". Adhesive after acid. Cellulose and precipitation again, the product is called viscose fiber.
(2) Fuqiang fiber compared with ordinary viscose fiber (namely, rayon, artificial hair, rayon), high strength, strong and durable; the shrinkage rate of the fiber is half of the viscose fiber; the elasticity is good, the clothes made of strong fiber, wrinkle resistance is better than the adhesive fiber, so the fuqiang fabric in soap and detergent washing is not as strict as viscose fiber.

2. Man-made fibers
Viscose fiber made of wood and grass fiber.
1) Copper ammonia fiber
The natural cellulose raw materials such as cotton short staple are dissolved in copper ammonia solution to make cellulose pulp with high concentration. In the solidification bath, the copper ammonia cellulose molecule is decomposed to regenerate cellulose, and the hydrated cellulose is processed to get copper ammonia fiber after processing. The solution is ejected from the spinneret head and down from the spinning funnel together with the aqueous solution, dissolving the cotton staple into a rayon made from slurry spinning.
(1) The appearance and feel of copper ammonia fiber are similar to silk, giving flexibility, flexibility and overhang. The fabric has a soft feel, soft luster and true silk feeling. Silk is fine and beautiful, but the cost is high.
(2) The hygroscopic property of copper ammonia fiber is close to that of adhesive fiber. Under the same staining conditions, the staining affinity of copper ammonia fiber is larger than that of adhesive fiber, and the color is darker.
(3) The dry strength of copper ammonia fiber is close to that of viscose fiber, but the wet strength is higher than that of viscose fiber, and the wear resistance is also better than that of viscose fiber.
(4) Copper and ammonia fiber is fine and soft, suitable for luster, and it is commonly used as high-grade silk weaving or knitting materials. Good hygroscopic, very overhanging sense, performance similar to silk, in line with the trend of environmental protection clothing. Other properties are similar to the viscose fibers.
2) Acetyl ester fiber
It is a semi-synthetic fiber material that is different from viscose fibers. In the acetate fibers, most or all of the hydroxyl groups on the cellulose ring are acetylated.
(1) Manufacturing method: acetate fiber is cellulose with acetic acid as solvent, acetic anhydride as acetylating agent, esterification under the action of catalyst, add excessive water to stop the reaction, so that the acetic acid fiber precipitate down to form cellulose acetate, dissolved in the slurry of trichloromethane after spinning to obtain triacetate fiber. If the cellulose acetate is locally saponified, the cellulose acetate dissolved in acetone is obtained, and the fiber obtained after spinning is called diacetylate fiber.
(2) Characteristics of cellulose acetate: as a porous membrane material, with high selectivity, large water permeability, simple processing, stability in dilute acid and alkali solution, easy to stain and wash; good sun resistance, more than nylon, viscose fiber and cotton fiber, heat first softening deformation, then slowly burning, and combustion. However, it is not easy to transfer heat and the tension is low, so the market clothing with recycled fiber and cotton or synthetic fiber mixed textile to make up for its shortcomings.
3) Artificial protein fiber
Made of animal or plant protein as raw materials, mainly with soybean protein fiber, peanut protein fiber, corn protein fiber and other varieties. The fibrillating material in the fibers is made of regenerated natural proteins, fibers of similar strength and elasticity as spider silk. The regenerated protein fiber mostly relies on a certain matrix (such as polypropylene lipid, polyvinyl alcohol, etc.) through spinning, and can be divided into regenerated plant protein fiber and regenerated animal protein fiber.
(1) Protein fiber characteristics: soft and smooth, similar to cashmere, warmth is higher than fat fiber, hanging is better than silk; good moisture absorption and moisture conductivity, good strength and extensibility, air permeability is higher than silk, washing is better than clear fiber and silk; friction factor is small, antistatic performance is better than synthetic fiber; moisture return is higher than cotton and greater than synthetic fiber. Therefore, protein fibers have the physical and mechanical properties of both natural fibers and synthetic fibers.
(2) Application direction: the fiber is fine fiber, light weight, acid and alkaline resistance, elegant luster, cotton fiber moisture absorption, moisture guide and wearing comfort and wool warmth, comfortable flexibility, can be used for textile underwear, and its high strength and light quality are suitable for "compatible" with human body, can be used for medical treatment, in addition, can be used as structural materials and composite materials for Bridges, high-rise buildings and civil buildings.

3. Reclaimed cellulose fibers and artificial fibers with high wet modulus
In the middle of the 20th century, the traditional process of viscose fiber major changes have taken place, the original yellowing, vulcanization manufacturing process to solvent cycle, no leakage pulp process, not only solve the problem of production environment pollution, and make fiber products more soft, smooth, high strength, high modulus, low shrinkage, good suspension, strong moisture capacity, new products favored by users.
1) Lyocell (Lessel) fiber
Also known as "silk", is a kind of regenerated cellulose fiber without environmental pollution, known as the "green fiber" of the 21st century.
(1) Features: Lessel fiber is a kind of solvent-based cellulose fiber, the raw materials come from wood, and the recovery rate of spinning solvent can reach 99%, which can be biodegradable. It has good hydrophilicity, moisture absorption and temperature control, and is the best regenerated cellulose fiber of dry and wet strength.
(2) The manufacturing method of Lessel fiber is: the conifer based wood pulp cellulose pulp, water and solvent NMMO (4-methyll-metholine-N-oxide) mixed, heated to complete dissolution, get viscous spinning liquid, and then make cellulose fiber by dry spray wet spinning process. Any derivatives and chemistry are not produced during the dissolution process, and its molecular structure is simple carbohydrate. Because cellulose is a natural polymer that makes up all plant ecological cells, it is widely used and easy to regenerate.
2) The Tmcel fiber
Is a kind of environmentally friendly regenerated cellulose fiber. Tencel Fiber is produced by solvent method, and 95% of its solvent can be recycled, so there is no pollution to the environment in the production process. Compared with traditional viscose fiber, Tencel fiber has no obvious difference between wet strength and dry strength, and can be applied in various fields. In addition, Tencel fiber can be completely decomposed in the soil, so Tencel fiber is called "2l century environmentally friendly green fiber".
(1) Tencel fiber can be completely decomposed in soil without pollution to environment; the whole production system forms a closed-loop recycling system with no waste discharge and no pollution to environment, which is environmentally friendly or green fiber.
(2) The fiber fabric has good hygroscopic, comfort, hanging and stiffness and good staining, and can be mixed with cotton, wool, hemp, nitrile, polyester and other materials, can be ring spinning, air spinning, spinner, spinning into a variety of cotton and wool yarn, core yarn, etc. Therefore, the fiber can not only be used in the production of underwear fabric, but also widely used in the fabric of outer clothing.
(3) Purpose: Developed a series of pure spinning, blended spinning, mixed and yarn in cotton spinning, silk spinning, hemp spinning and wool spinning equipment, and widely used in high-grade casual wear, underwear, T-shirts, sweaters, etc. in the market. The special composite yarn made of staple fiber / polyester filament combines the advantages of filament fabric, good hanging and wrinkle preservation with the soft feel, moisture absorption and bright color, with great potential for development and application in textile and nonwoven fabric industry.

3) Modal fibers
Called "Modal", is a new generation of high temperature modulus cellulose fiber, its raw materials from the natural wood, can be degraded naturally, after use. The waste of its textiles can be spontaneously biodegradable. It is a new type of environmental protection fiber in the process of serious environmental pollution without adhesive fiber production in the 21st century.
 In the 1980s, it was first developed by Austrian Lanjing company, which is beech wood pulp as raw material, can produce environmental protection high strength modulus fiber, with silk luster, cool hemp, water absorption and permeability are better than cotton. Foreign similar to Modal fiber and Tafecell, Richcel and other products.
(1) Modal fiber can be blended and interwoven with a variety of fibers to give full play to the characteristics of their respective fibers to achieve better results. Modal fiber fabric has moisture absorption and air permeability than pure cotton fabric, its feel smooth, delicate, soft, good hanging, comfortable wearing, bright color, is a kind of natural silk fabric. Especially ultraffine Modal fabrics are thin and soft.
(2) Use: Modal fiber can be pure or mixed with cotton and other fibers, with strong silk light sense, good moisture absorption and permeability, and can still maintain soft and bright color after many washing. Because of the comfort, good elasticity and good air permeability, Modal fiber has been widely used in underwear, T-shirt, pants, sweaters and other fields. It has been used in many well-known underwear brands in underwear production, and more and more domestic consumers love Modal underwear. But also because of these characteristics, modal fabric is less used in the clothing, because it is more difficult to achieve the effect of shaping. Suitable for a variety of fiber mixing, can be used as knitted underwear, scarves, denim clothing and other products, fine Dan Modale is more distinctive.

⒋ Bamboo cellulose fiber
Fiber produced after the bamboo bamboo was treated with natural biological agents. With bamboo as raw material, functional additives are added to bamboo pulp, hydrolysis-alkali method and multiple bleaching refined pulp, and then processed by wet spinning fiber, processed by wet spinning.
1) Bamboo fiber manufacturing: bamboo pulp fiber and pulp are bamboo as raw material, hydrolyzed alkali method and multiple bleaching refined pulp, and then from chemical fiber factory to soluble viscose cellulose fiber, so it can be called bamboo regenerated cellulose fiber.
2) Features: fiber fineness and whiteness are close to ordinary fine drift adhesive, with good strength, stable and uniform, high toughness, wear resistance, and excellent spinning performance. The bamboo fiber cross section is filled with a variety of tiny gaps and cavities, which is similar to the viscose fiber, so that the fiber fabric has good hygroscopic and air permeability. One of the biggest characteristics of bamboo fiber is that it has natural antibacterial properties, which can effectively inhibit the reproduction of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and other fungi. And the fabric made with it also has a very good shielding effect on ultraviolet rays. Its overhang and dyeing performance is also better, and silk like luster and feel, and has the function of odor, anti-ultraviolet light.
3) Use: Bamboo fiber has a natural bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect. In sanitary napkins, diapers, masks, pads, food packaging and other applications; natural antibacterial function of bamboo fiber products, no need to add any synthetic antibacterial agent, will not cause skin allergy, bamboo fiber gauze, bamboo fiber band-aid, bamboo fiber surgical clothing, nurse clothing, towel, underwear, socks and a series of products; bamboo fiber moisture absorption and wet performance is good, feel soft and comfortable. Unique antibacterial properties, can be used to make bedding.

5. The chitin fiber
It is widely found in the shells of aquatic products such as shrimp and turtles and arthropods such as insects, and also in the cell walls of bacteria and algae. Visse-based chitin fibers are made of chitin, chitosan and cellulose through conventional wet spinning process. It has biological activity, biodegradability and biocompatibility, and has excellent moisture absorption and moisturizing function. The function of using chitin fiber and cotton blend has a broad development prospect in the application and development of health clothing.
6. Vilouft (Viloft) fibers
Fiber has flat section and fine grooves and holes, in mixing, after special design, fine yarn section will form many air capsules, thus soft, warm, products easy to be moisture, sewage discharge, make clothing light, fresh, washed 40℃ will not deform, fade.
 Fiber fineness 2.4 dtex 38 mn, can be blended with cotton, polyester, wool, cashmere, acrylic, Lyocell and other fiber, woven into thermal underwear, clothing, casual clothing, home clothing, etc.

3. Properties and applications of cellulose fibers
1. Physical properties
Cellulose fibers have excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength, high modulus, etc. In addition, cellulose fiber also has excellent chemical properties, such as corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance. These properties make cellulose fibers with broad applications in many fields.
2. Chemical properties
The chemical properties of the cellulose fiber enable it to perform various chemical reactions, such as esterification, etherification, grafting, etc. These chemical reactions can improve the properties of cellulose fiber and expand their application field.
3. Application field
Cellulose fiber is widely used in paper making, textile, medicine, food and other fields. In the field of paper making, cellulose fiber is used for making paper, cardboard, etc. In the textile field, cellulose fiber is used to make clothing, bedding, etc. In the pharmaceutical field, cellulose fiber is used to make drug carriers, biological materials, etc. In the field of food, cellulose fiber is used to make food additives, dietary fiber, etc.
4. High-value utilization of cellulose
1) Bioenergy: converting natural cellulose into biomass fuel is a green energy utilization method, which can effectively reduce the use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions, while promoting the comprehensive utilization of agricultural waste and forestry waste. At present, biomass energy has been widely used in power generation, heating and industrial production and other fields.
2) Food and drugs: Natural cellulose is also increasingly widely used in the field of food and drugs. For example, cellulose can be used as additives in food, health products, medicine and other fields, as well as as the outer coating material of drug capsules.
3) Chemicals: natural cellulose can also be converted into chemical raw materials, used for the production of chemicals, adhesives, coatings, inks and other products.
4) Cellulase: Cellulase is used to decompose cellulose enzymes, can be used in the production of a variety of cellulose products, is also an important enzyme in the production of biomass fuel.
5) Polymer materials: polymer materials converted into natural cellulose, such as methyl cellulose acid and cellulose acetate, can be prepared for a variety of polymer materials, such as plastic, fiber, film, dumb powder, etc.

4. Study on the market value of cellulose fiber
1. High value-added product type
The high value-added utilization products of cellulose fiber include differentiated fiber, high-performance composite materials, biomedical materials and so on. These products have a high added value in the market.
2. Market value analysis
(1) Differential chemical fibers
Differentiated fiber refers to the cellulose fiber with special properties obtained by chemical modification or physical modification. Differential fiber has higher added value in the market, such as high strength fiber, waterproof fiber, etc.
(2) High-performance composite materials
High performance composite material refers to the high performance material combined with resin, rubber and other matrix. Such materials have excellent mechanical and chemical properties, and are widely used in aerospace, automotive and other fields.
(3) Biomedical materials
Biomedical materials refer to the medical materials used in human bodies or animal bodies. Cellulose fibers have excellent biocompatibility and degradability, and can be used as raw materials for biomedical materials, such as drug carriers, tissue engineering scaffolds, etc.
3. Market outlook forecast
With the continuous progress of science and technology and the improvement of people's awareness of environmental protection, the high added value utilization of cellulose fiber has a broad market prospect. It is expected that in the next few years, the high value-added utilization market of cellulose fiber will maintain a rapid growth trend. At the same time, with the continuous development of new products and the expansion of application fields, the high value-added utilization market of cellulose fiber will continue to expand.

5. Future and development of cellulose fibers
Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on the earth. The raw materials of regenerated cellulose include cotton short staple pulp, beech, fir wood pulp, bamboo pulp, pine, fir, mulberry, oak, wheat orange, rice orange, corn straw, sugarcane straw, sorghum straw, reed and orange and so on. By adding a solvent, different cellulose fibers are made from different raw materials. It is widely used in the two fields of textile and clothing and home textile, and can be blended with natural fiber and functional fiber, and exert its high strength.
 Many universities, research institutes and enterprises at home and abroad are also actively research and developing new varieties of cellulose fiber: in the viscose spinning mixed with anion minerals, Such as diatomite, calcium carbide, Using the composite spinning or injection methods, Mother method and other technology to make negative ion viscose fiber; With viscose fiber as the main body to develop a variety of flame retardant, radiation prevention, antistatic fiber; Biomass nanocellulosic fibers, With carbon neutral, renewable, sustainable and non-toxic, no-pollution, long life cycle and other characteristics; Using the ion-flow dissolution fiber method technology, The ionic solution use temperature is less than 100℃, Development of a new regenerated fiber, Lonel, The recovery rate of ionic liquid can reach 99%.
 The high added value utilization market of cellulose fiber has great potential and broad prospect. Through the deep study of cellulose fiber, developing more products with high added value will help to improve the application field and market competitiveness of cellulose fiber. At the same time, strengthening industry-university-research cooperation and technological innovation will provide more powerful technical support and impetus for the high value-added utilization market of cellulose fiber.



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